Α Polish woman is taking care of a 90-year-old lady in her house in the city of Bonn, Germany. Foto by EPD.

Germany ratified C189 in 2013. There is an increasing concern about undocumented migrants and irregular workers taking up jobs in this sector. PDW has been part of the general labour laws since the 1950s but no special law exists (unlike in Italy and Spain). Today, PDW is listed amongst the ‘Minijobs’. PDW is less open to migrants than in Italy, with the exception of EU migrants, who can profit from visa-free mobility. The main actors from civil society are migrant women’s groups and trade unions.

Country-expert: Marlene Seiffarth

Local workshop: November 2017